Sphragistics (The Study of Seals)

Any medieval document that claimed legal validity or credibility had to have some form of authentication.The signature is the current convention for authenticating a document, but in the Middle Ages, only the member of a few relatively small groups (clerics, professional scribes, Jews, some merchants) were able to write, so seals were the standard instrument of authentication.
1. Seals and Sphragistics
2. Distinguishing Criteria
3. Images of Seals
4. Marginal Text on Seals
5. Material
6. Form
7. Size
8. Fastening
9. Further Reading
Untersuchung des Siegels einer Urkunde (Auschnitt aus dem ersten Teilfilm des Kapitels "Urkundenlehre")